Nowadays, an increasing number of oil and gas transmission pipes are constructed with high-strength low alloy steels (HSLA); however, many of these pipelines suffer from different types of hydrogen damages, such as hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC). So many research efforts are being carried out to reduce the detrimental effects of hydrogen damage in HSLA steel pipes.
The thermomechanical control process (TMCP) is a microstructural control technique that is able to eliminate the conventional heat treatment after hot rolling. Recent research demonstrated that TMCP provides high HIC resistance without adding high amounts of alloying elements or expensive heat treatments. However, once these HSLA steel pipes are put into service, they experience HIC damage, and the prediction of its kinetics is a necessary condition to perform Fitness-For-Service assessments. To develop a reliable predictive model for the kinetics of HIC, the relations among the microstructural features, environmental parameters, and mechanical properties have to be fully understood.
This paper presents a review of the key metallurgical and processing factors to develop HSLA steel pipes, as well as a review of the phenomenological and empirical models of HIC kinetics in order to identify specific research directions for further investigations aimed to establish a reliable and sound model of HIC kinetics.
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