This paper proposes an efficient methodology to monitor the formation of cracks in concrete after non-destructive ultrasonic testing of a structure. The objective is to be able to automatically detect the initiation of cracks early enough, i.e. well before they are visible on the concrete surface, in order to implement adequate maintenance actions on civil engineering structures. The key element of this original approach is the wavelet-based multiresolution analysis of the ultrasonic signal received from a sample or a specimen of the studied material subjected to several types of solicitation. This analysis is finally coupled to an automatic identification scheme of the types of cracks based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), and in particular deep learning by convolutional neural networks (CNNs); a technology today at the cutting edge of machine learning, in particular for all applications of pattern recognition. Wavelet-based multiresolution analysis does not add any value in detecting fractures in concrete visible by optical inspection. However, the results of its implementation coupled with different CNN architectures show cracks in concrete can be identified at an early stage with a very high accuracy, i.e. around 99.8%, and a loss function of less than 0.1, regardless of the implemented learning architecture.
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