The design of concrete elevated water tanks involves several kinds of uncertainties. Traditionally, the design of these structures is based on a deterministic analysis. Partial safety factors prescribed in design codes are applied to take into account these uncertainties and to ensure sufficiently safe design. However, this approach does not allow rational evaluation of the risk related to the structural failure and consequently its reliability. In fact, the partial safety factors can lead to over-designed structures; or to under designed structural components leading to a lack of structural robustness. In this study, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo simulations is used to analyze the reliability of elevated water tanks submitted to hazard seismic loading. This reliability approach, takes into account mainly two parameters. Firstly, the hydraulic charge in the tank container which is a function of time, and secondly, the hazard seismic loading through the Peak Ground Acceleration is considered as a random variable. Fragility curves depending on seismic zones and soil types are obtained by using the probabilistic approach, where they demonstrate the dominant failure modes that can cause the structural failure with respect to different seismic levels, soil types and water height level in the tank container.
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