Rocks are frequently host materials for underground structures, particularly for deep Tunnels. Their behavior plays a fundamental role in the overall stability of these structures. In fact, the erection of deep tunnels imposes rocks excavations around the defined routes. These excavations are generally carried out by various methods of which the most used are Drill-and-Blast (DB) and Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). However, regardless of the tunnelling method used, the impacts such as the perturbation of the initial stress field in rocks and the release of the stored energy are always significant. The impacts produce damage, fractures and deformations which are generally time-dependent and influence the long-term stability of deep tunnels built in rocks. Thus, by considering the aforementioned excavation methods, this paper identifies, reviews and describes the relevant factors generated during and after rock excavations. Interestingly, such factors directly or indirectly influence the long-term stability and therefore the structural integrity of deep rock tunnels. In addition, some recommendations and proposals for future works are presented. This paper can provide useful references in understanding the degradations, damage and fractures generated by tunnelling methods and facilitate suitable actions to ensure long-term stability of deep underground structures.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors are allowed to retain both the copyright and the publishing rights of their articles without restrictions.
Open Access Statement
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale (Fracture and Structural Integrity, F&SI) is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the DOAI definition of open access.
F&SI operates under the Creative Commons Licence Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0). This allows to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, to remix, transform and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, but giving appropriate credit and providing a link to the license and indicating if changes were made.